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Oracle database 11g express edition установка и настройка



Обзор и установка Oracle Database Express Edition 11g Release 2 на ОС Windows 7

Материал посвящен системе управления базами данных от компании Oracle, а именно бесплатной версии Oracle Database Express Edition 11g Release 2, сегодня мы узнаем, что это за СУБД, какие ограничения у Express версии и как ее можно установить.

Последнее время мы с Вами стали очень часто затрагивать тему баз данных, но если говорить конкретней в основном мы касались СУБД от компании Microsoft, а именно Microsoft SQL Server Express, например, рассматривали Microsoft SQL Server Express 2008, а так как это далеко не последняя версия, мы также рассматривали возможность обновления 2008 версии до Microsoft SQL Server Express 2014. Теперь предлагаю познакомиться с одной из лучших СУБД (по мнению многих специалистов лучшей), а именно с Oracle Database. И естественно, что рассматривать данный продукт мы будем на бесплатной версии Oracle Database Express Edition 11g Release 2, на момент написания статьи это последняя версия Oracle Database Express Edition.

Предлагаю сначала сделать небольшой обзор Oracle Database, затем плавно перейти к Express версии, и в заключение, конечно же, подробно рассмотреть процесс установки Oracle Database Express Edition 11g Release 2 на операционную систему Windows 7.

Что такое Oracle Database?

Oracle – это крупнейшая в мире компания по разработке программного обеспечения для предприятий. Специализация Oracle является разработка систем управления базами данных, таких как Oracle Database, а также других бизнес-приложений.

Oracle Database — это объектно-реляционная система управления базами данных (RDBMS или Relational DataBase Management System). Многие крупнейшие компании мира в качестве базы данных выбирают именно Oracle Database.

В названии каждой версий мы наблюдаем номер версии и букву, например 11g, где g – это «grid» или сеть, символизируя тем самым поддержку grid-вычислений.

В 2013 году вышла версия 12c, где c означает cloud (облако).

Данная СУБД поддерживает много платформ, например: Linux x86, Linux x86-64, как 32 разрядные Windows так и 64, Solaris x86, Solaris SPARC (64-бит), Mac OS X Server и еще много других.

В Oracle Database используется язык программирования PL/SQL (Procedural Language / Structured Query Language) — это расширения языка SQL, которое разработала компания Oracle. Например, также компания Microsoft для своей СУБД разработала язык Transact-SQL, его мы подробно разбирали во многих статьях, даже составили «Справочник Transact-SQL».

Oracle Database поставляется в следующих редакциях:

  • Oracle Database Enterprise Edition;
  • Oracle Database Standard Edition;
  • Oracle Database Standard Edition One;
  • Oracle Database Personal Edition;
  • Oracle Cloud File System;
  • Oracle Database Mobile Server;
  • Oracle Database Express Edition.

Oracle Database Express Edition

Oracle Database Express Edition (Oracle Database XE) – это бесплатная версия базы данных Oracle Database для начинающих разработчиков и администраторов, которые если освоят данную СУБД, смогут легко перейти на полноценную версию.

Так как это версия бесплатная она естественно имеет ограничения:

  • Она будет использовать не более 1 гигабайта оперативной памяти;
  • Также будет использовать только один процессор;
  • Всего одна база данных размером не более 11 гигабайт;
  • Может быть установлена только на ОС Windows x32, Windows x64 и Linux x86-64.

На данный момент последней версией является Oracle Database Express Edition 11g Release 2, поэтому именно ее мы и будем устанавливать, но прежде давайте узнаем, где же взять данное программное обеспечение.

Где скачать Oracle Database Express Edition 11g Release 2?

Конечно, скачать данную СУБД можно с официального сайта компании Oracle, а конкретно на странице посвященной Oracle Database Express Edition

Мы соответственно переходим на страницу, жмем Accept License Agreement — это для принятия лицензионного соглашения, затем выбираем тип нашей операционной системы, я для примера выберу файл для 32 разрядных Windows, а именно Oracle Database Express Edition 11g Release 2 for Windows x32.

Затем откроется страница, на которой необходимо указать учетную запись и пароль от Oracle и нажать «Вход в систему», это если Вы уже зарегистрированы, а если нет, то нажмите сначала «Создать учетную запись». Советую это сделать, так как данная учетная запись позволит Вам получить доступ к различным онлайн приложениям Oracle, службе поддержки Oracle, а так же, как Вы уже поняли, к загрузке программного обеспечения.

После этого начнется загрузка файла, в нашем случае это OracleXE112_Win32.zip (сжатый архив) размером 312 мегабайт.

Установка Oracle Database Express Edition 11g Release 2 на Windows 7

После скачивания файла его необходимо разархивировать, как это делается мы говорили в материале Как заархивировать и разархивировать файл.

Примечание! Вся установка и интерфейс программного обеспечения входящего в состав Oracle Database Express на английском языке.

Шаг 1

Для установки переходим в распакованный каталог, открываем папку DISK1 и запускаем setup.exe, в последствие будет выполнена подготовка к установке

Шаг 2

Затем откроется окно приветствия, жмем «Next».

Шаг 3

Далее нам необходимо прочитать и согласиться с лицензионным соглашением, выбираем «I accept the terms in the license agreement» и жмем «Next».

Шаг 4

Далее нужно будет указать путь установки, я оставляю все по умолчанию и жму «Next». Также на данном окне будет показано свободное место на выбранном диске и сколько места необходимо для установки, как видите, у меня места хватает.

Шаг 5

Далее придумываем и вводим пароль для системной учетной записи SYSTEM, это своего рода учетка главного администратора, жмем «Next».

Шаг 6

В заключение проверяем введенные параметры и нажимаем «Next».

Вот и началась установка Oracle Database Express Edition 11g Release 2

Установка будет завершена после появления следующего окна, в котором нажимаем «Finish».

После этого у нас в меню пуск появится пункт «Oracle Database 11g Express Edition». Через данное меню мы можем запустить СУБД или остановить ее, также можем запустить «Run SQL Command Line» — это для того чтобы писать какие-то SQL запросы или разрабатывать приложения на PL/SQL.

Например, для подключения к серверу откройте «Run SQL Command Line», введите команду connect, на вопрос «Enter user-name:» введите system (название учетной записи), а на вопрос «Enter password:» вводим пароль, который мы придумали и ввели в ходе установки, и если Вы увидели Connected, то это значит, Вы подключились и можете писать свои sql запросы, например:

где, mytable — это таблица, которую я заранее создал и заполнил тестовыми данными, также не забываем писать точку с запятой (;) в конце инструкции, иначе запрос не выполнится.

Но для этих целей лучше использовать Oracle SQL Developer, но об этом чуть ниже.

Также на рабочем столе появится ярлык «Get Started With Oracle Database 11g Express Edition» — это для запуска веб интерфейса «Oracle Database XE 11.2»

Это своего рода панель администратора СУБД (для авторизации используем системную учетную запись), из нее можно создавать пользователей для доступа к базе, мониторить кто подключен к базе данных, а также для запуска «Oracle Application Express» (APEX) — это среда разработки приложений, которая полностью реализована как Web приложение (работа через браузер).

Заметка! Если Вы начинающий программист и у Вас нет базовых знаний языка SQL, то я Вам рекомендую почитать книгу «SQL код» это самоучитель по данному языку. Книга написана мной, в ней я очень подробно рассказываю о языке SQL.

Если Вы запустили и увидели данное окно, то значит, установка прошла успешно.

На этом предлагаю заканчивать, так как данную СУБД мы установили, в следующем материале мы подробно разберем инструмент разработчика приложений на базе Oracle Database это, конечно же, SQL Developer, так как материал обширный, и он заслуживает отдельной статьи.

Источник

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Oracle® Database Express Edition

11 g Release 2 (11.2) for Linux x86-64

Welcome to Oracle Database Express Edition Installation Guide for Linux x86-64 . This guide covers the following topics:

The most up-to-date version of this installation guide is available from the Oracle Database Express Edition (Oracle Database XE) download page on Oracle Technology Network:

1 Introduction

Oracle Database XE is easy to install. Oracle Database XE provides an Oracle database and tools for managing the database.

Oracle Database XE supports the following development environments:

Oracle SQL Developer : Oracle SQL Developer is a graphical version of SQL*Plus that gives database developers a convenient way to perform basic tasks. You can connect to any target Oracle Database XE schema using standard Oracle database authentication. Once connected, you can perform operations on objects in the database.

Download and install Oracle SQL Developer from:

Oracle Application Express : Oracle Database XE includes Oracle Application Express, a rapid web application development tool for the Oracle database. Oracle Application Express is enabled by default in Oracle Database XE.

Java : Java is an open-source programing language that is designed for use in the distributed environment of the Internet. You can use Oracle JDeveloper, which is a free integrated Java development environment with support for the full development life cycle.

Download and install Oracle JDeveloper from:

PHP is an open-source server-side embedded scripting language that is designed for Web development. PHP code can be embedded in HTML. You can download and install PHP from http://www.php.net .

For more information on Oracle Database XE, see the following:

Oracle Database XE home page on the Oracle Technology Network:

Oracle Database XE Documentation Library:

Click the appropriate link on the Oracle Database XE home page on the Oracle Technology Network; or from the system menus, get to Oracle Database 11g Express Edition and select Get Help , then Read Documentation .

Click the appropriate link on the Oracle Database XE home page on the Oracle Technology Network; or from the system menus, get to Oracle Database 11g Express Edition and select Get Help , then Go to Online Forum .

2 Requirements

This section covers the following topics:

2.1 Software Requirements

This section covers the following topics:

2.1.1 System Requirements

Table 1 provides system requirements for Oracle Database XE.

Table 1 Oracle Database XE Requirements

One of the following:

Oracle Enterprise Linux 4 Update 7

Oracle Enterprise Linux 5 Update 2

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 Update 7

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 2

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP2

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11

The following protocols are supported:

256 megabytes minimum, 512 megabytes recommended

1.5 gigabyte minimum

glibc should be greater than or equal to 2.3.4-2.41

make should be greater than or equal to 3.80

binutils should be greater than or equal to 2.16.91.0.5

gcc should be greater than or equal to 4.1.2

libaio should be greater than or equal to 0.3.104

2.1.2 Swap Space Requirements

Minimum swap space required for Oracle Database XE is 2 GB or twice the size of RAM, whichever is lesser.

2.1.3 Server Component Kernel Parameter Requirements

The Oracle Database XE installation checks your system for the following kernel parameter settings. If the kernel parameters of your system are less than the values listed in Table 2, then the installation will modify the kernel parameter setting to use the values in this table.

Table 2 Kernel Parameter Settings Required for Oracle Database XE

Requirement Value

2.2 Permission Requirement for Installing Oracle Database XE

You must have root permission to install Oracle Database XE.

3 Licensing Restrictions

This section covers the following topics:

3.1 Oracle Database XE CPU Limitations

If Oracle Database XE is installed on a computer with more than one CPU (including dual-core CPUs), then it will consume, at most, processing resources equivalent to one CPU. For example, on a computer with two CPUs, if two Oracle database clients try to simultaneously execute CPU-intensive queries, then Oracle Database 11 g Standard Edition, Oracle Database 11 g Standard Edition One, or Oracle Database 11 g Enterprise Edition will use both CPUs to efficiently process the queries. However, with Oracle Database XE, the Oracle database will process the queries at the rate of a single CPU even if concurrent processing on two CPUs would be faster. To use the full processing resources of your computer, upgrade to Oracle Database 11 g Standard Edition, Oracle Database 11 g Standard Edition One, or Oracle Database 11 g Enterprise Edition.

3.2 Oracle Database XE Installation and Execution Restrictions

Only one installation of Oracle Database XE can be performed on a single computer. This does not affect any existing installation or new installations of Oracle Database 11 g Standard Edition, Oracle Database 11 g Standard Edition One, or Oracle Database 11 g Enterprise Edition. In addition, users can run only one instance of the Oracle Database XE database on each individual computer. To run more than one Oracle Database server instance or install more than one copy of the database software, upgrade to Oracle Database 11 g Standard Edition, Oracle Database 11 g Standard Edition One, or Oracle Database 11 g Enterprise Edition.

3.3 Oracle Database XE User Data Limitations

The maximum amount of user data in an Oracle Database XE database cannot exceed 11 gigabytes. If the user data grows beyond this limit, then an ORA-12592 error will appear. To use more than 11 gigabytes of user data, upgrade to Oracle Database 11 g Standard Edition, Oracle Database 11 g Standard Edition One, or Oracle Database 11 g Enterprise Edition.

3.4 Oracle Database XE RAM Limitation

The maximum amount of RAM that an Oracle Database XE database uses cannot exceed 1 gigabyte, even if more is available. Table 1, «Oracle Database XE Requirements» provides the minimum and recommended RAM that you should use. The exact amount of RAM that Oracle Database XE uses is computed automatically using Automatic Memory Management.

To use more than 1 gigabyte of RAM, upgrade to Oracle Database 11 g Standard Edition, Oracle Database 11 g Standard Edition One, or Oracle Database 11 g Enterprise Edition.

For more information about managing memory, refer to Oracle Database Express Edition 2 Day DBA .

3.5 HTTPS Support

HTTPS is not supported natively with the HTTP listener built into Oracle Database XE. If you want HTTPS support, use an alternative Web listener, such as Apache, that does provide HTTPS support, and provide proxies for the URLs provided by Oracle Database XE.

For information about managing security in Oracle Database XE, refer to Oracle Database Express Edition 2 Day DBA .

4 Installing Oracle Database XE

This section covers the following topics:

4.1 Procedure for Installing Oracle Database XE

Before attempting to install Oracle Database XE 11.2 uninstall any existing Oracle Database XE or database with the SID XE from the target system.

To install Oracle Database XE:

Log on to your computer with root permissions.

Go to the following Web site:

Click Free Download and follow the instructions to select and download the Linux version of Oracle Database XE.

Run the Oracle Database XE executable oracle-xe-11.2.0-1.0.x86_64.rpm to install Oracle Database XE.

The installation displays a status of its progress.

When prompted, run the following command:

Enter the following configuration information:

A valid HTTP port for the Oracle Application Express (the default is 8080)

A valid port for the Oracle database listener (the default is 1521)

A password for the SYS and SYSTEM administrative user accounts

Confirm password for SYS and SYSTEM administrative user accounts

Whether you want the database to start automatically when the computer starts (next reboot)

This completes configuration. The database starts during the boot process.

The password for the INTERNAL and ADMIN Oracle Application Express user accounts is initially the same as the SYS and SYSTEM administrative user accounts.

To start the database manually, run this command as root user:

To stop the database manually, run the following command as root user:

You can find the database creation logs in $ORACLE_HOME/config/log/* .

4.2 Performing a Silent Installation

The response file xe.rsp is shipped along with the Oracle Database XE executable .rpm file.

To perform a silent installation:

After downloading the installation executable (described under «Procedure for Installing Oracle Database XE»), prepare the response file xe.rsp that contains settings for the following values:

ORACLE_LISTENER_PORT : A valid listener numeric port value, so that you can connect to Oracle Database XE

ORACLE_HTTP_PORT : A valid HTTP port numeric value for Oracle Application Express

ORACLE_PASSWORD : A password value for the SYS and SYSTEM administrative user accounts

ORACLE_CONFIRM_PASSWORD : The SYS and SYSTEM password value again, to confirm it

ORACLE_DBENABLE : Yes ( y ) or no ( n ), to specify whether you want to start Oracle Database XE automatically when the computer starts

The default values are populated for ORACLE_LISTENER_PORT , ORACLE_HTTP_PORT , and ORACLE_DBENABLE in the response file.

Create a wrapper shell script to perform the silent installation.

It should contain commands similar to the following:

Run the wrapper script as the root user.

For details of the installation, see the XEsilentinstall.log file.

After you complete the silent installation, set the Oracle Database XE environment variables, which is described in Section 4.3, «Setting the Oracle Database XE Environment Variables».

You can find the database creation logs in $ORACLE_HOME/config/log/* .

4.3 Setting the Oracle Database XE Environment Variables

After you have installed and configured Oracle Database XE, users must set their environment before they use Oracle Database XE. They do not need to log on with root permissions to do so. Oracle Database XE provides a script that sets the necessary environment variables.

Follow these steps:

Go to the following directory:

Look for the following scripts:

oracle_env.csh (for C or tcsh shell)

oracle_env.sh (for Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell)

Run the appropriate script for your shell. For example:

Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

C or tcsh shell:

You may also want edit your login or profile files so that these environment variables are set properly each time you log in or open a new shell.

For Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell, enter the following line into the .bash_profile (to log in) or .bashrc file (to open a new shell):

For C or tcsh shell, enter the following line into the .login file (to log in) or .cshrc file (to open a new shell):

4.4 Making Oracle Database XE Available to Remote Clients

After you install Oracle Database XE, the Get Started With Oracle Database 11g Express Edition home page is only available from the local server, not remotely.

With remote HTTP access to Oracle Database XE, all information exchanged between the browser and the database is in clear text—that is, unencrypted—including database user names and passwords. If this is cause for concern, do not enable remote HTTP connection to the database.

To use the SQL Command Line, follow these steps:

Start SQL*Plus and log in as SYSTEM :

Or, if you are logging in remotely:

At the SQL prompt, enter the following command:

4.5 Compiling the Oracle ODBC Driver Demos

If you plan to compile and run the Oracle ODBC Driver demos, then follow these steps:

If you do not have unixODBC DriverManager installed, then download it from the following Web site:

Set the ODBCDM_HOME environment variable to point to the directory where you installed DriverManager.

Run the following make file to compile the Oracle ODBC Driver demos:

5 Starting Oracle Database XE

After you have installed Oracle Database XE, the database is up and running and you can begin using it right away, as follows:

If the database is currently stopped, start it as follows: click the Main menu (on Gnome) or the Applications menu (on KDE), then Oracle Database 11g Express Edition , and then click Start Database .

Go to the Main menu (on Gnome) or the Applications menu (on KDE), then Oracle Database 11g Express Edition , and then click Run SQL Command Line . Connect to the database using the user name SYSTEM , and supply the password that you created during configuration.

To begin learning about Oracle Database XE, use the OracleDatabase XE Documentation.

To access the Oracle Database XE Documentation, from the Main menu (on Gnome) or the Applications menu (on KDE), select Oracle Database 11g Express Edition , then Get Help , and then click Read Documentation .

To use Oracle Database XE, your user id must be a member of Linux group dba .

6 Deinstalling Oracle Database XE

When you deinstall Oracle Database XE, all components, including data files, the database, and the software, are removed. If you want to save your data files but remove the Oracle Database XE software and database, then first export the data by using one of the methods described in Oracle Database Express Edition 2 Day DBA before you deinstall.

Because the deinstallation process removes all files from the directory in which Oracle Database XE is installed, back up any files from the directory (if needed) before you deinstall.

This section covers the following topic:

6.1 Deinstalling the Oracle Database XE Software

Follow these steps:

Log on with root privileges.

Run the following command to deinstall Oracle Database XE:

7 Importing and Exporting Data between 10.2 XE and 11.2 XE

To import and export data between 10.2 XE and 11.2 XE, perform the following steps:

Copy the gen_inst.sql file from the upgrade directory of 11.2 XE shiphome to your local directory.

Connect to 10.2 XE database as SYS user and run gen_inst.sql . This will generate install.sql , gen_apps.sql and other .sql files. The files will be generated in the folder containing gen_inst.sql .

SQL> @ local_dir >/gen_inst.sql

where local_dir is the local directory where gen_inst.sql is copied

Do not copy the gen_inst.sql file into the 10.2 XE home directory if you plan to install XE 11.2 on the same system. All generated files get deleted if XE 10.2 is uninstalled.

To export the data from 10.2 XE database, perform the following steps:

Connect to 10.2 XE database as SYS user.

Create a dump folder dump_folder on the local file system.

Create directory object DUMP_DIR with READ and WRITE privilege to SYSTEM user.

Export data from 10.2 XE database to the dump folder.

Deinstall 10.2 XE if installation of 11.2 XE is planned on the same system.

Install 11.2 XE database. For more information see Section 4, «Installing Oracle Database XE».

To import data to the 11.2 XE database, perform the following steps:

Connect to 11.2 XE database as SYS user.

Create directory object DUMP_DIR with READ and WRITE privilege to SYSTEM user.

Import data to 11.2 XE database from the dump folder.

Connect to 11.2 XE database as SYS user and run the script install.sql , which was generated in Step 2. This will trigger the execution of ws.sql , gen._apps.sql, and other .sql files.

8 Reporting Security Vulnerabilities

If you find any security vulnerabilities with Oracle Database XE, then send a description of the problem to Oracle at the following e-mail address:

Include the following information in your e-mail:

A complete description of the problem you encountered

The version of Oracle Database XE you were using

The platform on which you were running Oracle Database XE

Any scripts or examples that may be helpful in tracking down the security problem

For more information on how Oracle handles security issues, visit:

9 Oracle Database XE Character and Language Configurations

Oracle Database XE is available only in Universal multi-language character set and language configuration:

The database is created using Unicode( AL32UTF8 ) character set, which is suitable for global data in any language.

Japanese, Brazilian Portuguese, and Simplified Chinese language message files are installed in ORACLE_HOME .

The Oracle Application Express user interface and database error messages are available in English, Japanese, Brazilian Portuguese, and Simplified Chinese.

10 Globalization Support: Configuring Locale and Character Sets with the NLS_LANG Parameter

This section explains how to configure globalization settings for Oracle Database XE. It covers the following topics:

10.1 About the NLS_LANG Parameter

Oracle provides globalization support that enables users to interact with a database in their preferred locale and character set settings. Setting the NLS_LANG environment variable specifies locale behavior for Oracle software. It sets the language and territory used by the client application and the database server. It also sets the character set for entering and displaying data by a client program, such as SQL*Plus.

The NLS_LANG parameter uses the following format:

NLS_LANG = LANGUAGE_TERRITORY . CHARACTER_SET

This format is explained in the following table:

Kernel Parameter Setting
Parameter Description
LANGUAGE Specifies the language for displaying product messages, day names, and month names in SQL.

Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide provides more information about languages.

TERRITORY Specifies the cultural-specific conventions for date, number, time, and monetary formatting.

Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide provides more information about territory conventions.

CHARACTER_SET Specifies the encoding used by the client application, which is usually the character set of the source data being processed, and the character set used in displaying the output.

«Supported Character Sets» provides a list of supported character sets.

Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide provides information about the NLS_LANG parameter and Globalization Support initialization parameters.

10.2 Default Values for NLS_LANG

The locale setting of your Linux session affects how you should set your NLS_LANG parameter. Table 3 lists the different Linux languages and their default locale IDs, together with the corresponding NLS_LANG values.

Table 3 NLS_LANG Parameter Values for Linux Locales

BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE_BRAZIL. AL32UTF8

10.3 Supported Character Sets

Table 4 lists the supported character sets in Oracle Database XE.

The character set AL16UTF16 can be used only as an NCHAR character set, and not as a database character set.

Table 4 Supported Universal Character Sets

Language Locale ID NLS_LANG

Unicode 4.0 UTF-16 Universal character set

Unicode 4.0 UTF-8 Universal character set

Unicode 3.0 UTF-8 Universal character set, CESU-8 compliant

10.4 Charmap and Oracle Character Set

The character set mapping (charmap) of the locale ID assigned for each language may vary depending on the distribution and version of the Linux operating system. To determine the current character mapping, enter the following command in a shell:

Table 5 lists each charmap with its corresponding Oracle character set. In general, you should update the CHARACTER_SET part of the NLS_LANG parameter according to the actual charmap of your Linux session.

Table 5 Mapping charmap to Oracle Character Set

Name Description

11 Documentation Accessibility

For information about Oracle’s commitment to accessibility, visit the Oracle Accessibility Program website at http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=docacc .

Access to Oracle Support

Oracle customers have access to electronic support through My Oracle Support. For information, visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=info or visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=trs if you are hearing impaired.

Oracle Database Express Edition Installation Guide , 11 g Release 2 (11.2) for Linux x86-64

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